References and Further Reading 1. Dualism The most basic form of dualism is substance dualism, which requires that mind and body be composed of two ontologically distinct substances.
Common experience tell us that Nature exhibits the interchange between continuity and discontinuity - growing up marked by sudden changes, heating which gradually leads to boiling, gradual growing apart of friends leading to sudden ruptures, etc. These two concepts actually prove extremely difficult for formal logic and mathematics to deal with.
Modern physics understands that matter is neither discrete nor continuous but a unity of the two "wave-particle"but the history of science exhibits a long history of struggle between theories of the discrete and the continuous. For instance, modern biology recognises that evolution is a process of "interrupted continuity".
In general there is nothing in Nature which is simply and wholly either continuous or discontinuous. Hegel criticises this law, and points out that the ancient Greeks had already proved that, for instance, the simple concept of motion requires that an object is both 'here and not-here' at one and the same time, something modern mathematics and physics would now agree with!
Mao's articleis a highly readable popular explanation of the application of the concept of contradiction in the analysis of complex social Substance dualism historical phenomena.
A known thing, from which Substance dualism inferences may be drawn. Deduction and Induction are terms denoting opposite methods of reasoning. Deduction is the method of inference which substantiates a conclusion on the basis of a number of previously established premises by means of the application of laws of logic, rather than by drawing on experience.
Induction is begins from a number of given facts and arrives at the principles exhibited in these facts, opening the possibility for deducing new facts or hypotheses. However, it should be kept in mind that cognition is impossible without both deduction and induction.
Neither induction nor deduction can go more than a single step without the help of the other. Criticising formal logicwhich rigidly separate Deduction and Induction, Hegel asks: And where do the premises come from?
Deduction and induction are a unity of broadly the same nature as analysis and synthesis. In Hegel's writing, the term "thought determination" comes up very frequently; it doesn't mean very much.
Lenin mentions several possible words for the same thingand later makes light fun over Hegel's use of the word. If carried to the point of absolute or mechanical determinism - the denial of chance and accident - as in the case of Laplacedeterminism becomes a kind of fatalism in which everything is absolutely determined by what has gone before.
See Hegel's contrast of the Development of the Notion and Hegel's explanation of the relation between opposites in Being and Essencewhich make up the Objective Logic.
See also Development of the Notion in Hegel's Logic. The term has a basis in Engels' work, such as in popularising Marx's ideas, though neither Marx nor Engels ever used the term.
See also Historical Materialism and Political Economy. Refer to Continuity and Discontinuity above. Belittled sense perception as the basis for knowledge, and posed the problem of expressing the contradictoriness of motion and change in logical concepts.
BaconLockerecognises that the material world is the source of sensation, and that sense experience has objective content. Or the idealist trend: Hume drew from the rationalistcritique of Empiricism, the denial of any objective content for sense experience, limiting knowledge to the sum total of sense-experience.
See Hegel's critique of Empiricism. But Experience does not by itself give necessary and universal knowledge, but can only grasp the superficial external phenomena of the objective world. Experience must be supplemented by the activity of Reason Rationalism which only happens when experience arises from practice.
See Hegel's critique of empricism and Geoff Pilling's explanation. The concept of error held by any philosophical standpoint reflects its theory of knowledge.
In dialectics, error, like knowledge, is both absolute and relative. Hegel also talks of "error" in the context of the "freakish" or fortuitous encountered in everyday life. See The Object for Hegel's explanation of error. See Hegel's comment on Error as a positive.
Whereas formal logic places an absolute ban on Contradiction, Intuitionism is a branch of Logic which holds that the Law of Excluded Middle is not valid. For dialecitcs, this law has only relative truth; due to the inherently mobile and interconnected nature of all concepts, it is frequently the case that neither a proposition nor its denial may be accepted as absolutely true.Dualism: Dualism, in religion, the doctrine that the world (or reality) consists of two basic, opposed, and irreducible principles that account for all that exists.
It has played an important role in the history of thought and of religion. In religion, dualism means the belief in two supreme opposed powers. Dualism and Mind.
Dualists in the philosophy of mind emphasize the radical difference between mind and matter.
They all deny that the mind is the same as the brain, and some deny that the mind is wholly a product of the brain.
(Renatus Cartesius), philosopher and scientist, born at La Haye France, 31 March, ; died at Stockholm, Sweden, 11 February He studied at the Jesuit college of La Flèche, one of the most famous schools of the time. In he went to Paris, where he formed a lasting friendship with Father Mersenne, O.F.M., and made the acquaintance of the mathematician Mydorge.
§Absolute and Relative. Absolute and Relative are philosophical terms concerning the mutual interdependence of things, processes and knowledge.
‘Absolute’ means independent, permanent and not subject to qualification.
René Descartes: The Mind-Body Distinction. One of the deepest and most lasting legacies of Descartes’ philosophy is his thesis that mind and body are really distinct—a thesis now called "mind-body dualism." He reaches this conclusion by arguing that the nature of the mind (that is, a thinking, non-extended thing) is completely different from that of the body (that is, an extended, non. Substance Dualism is a variety of dualism in the philosophy of mind which states that two sorts of substances exist: the mental and the physical.. Substance dualism is a fundamentally ontological position: it states that the mental and the physical are separate substances with independant existence. noun. the state of being twofold or double; philosophy the doctrine, as opposed to idealism and materialism, that reality consists of two basic types of substance usually taken to be mind and matter or two basic types of entity, mental and physical Compare monism; the theory that the universe has been ruled from its origins by two conflicting powers, one good and one evil, both existing as.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and between subject and object, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism, in the.
Most of the world’s popular religions subscribe to Substance Dualism. The real me is the second type of substance – the real me is non-physical and independent of my body.
Thus, my mind and my body can be detached from each other.