The 10th Sikh Guru Gobind Singh ji Nanak X established the world's first Sikh democratic republic state ending the aristocracy on day of 1st Vasakh and Gurbani as sole constitution of this Sikh republic on the Indian subcontinent. The Kouroukan Fouga divided the Mali Empire into ruling clans lineages that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara.
Our first task is therefore to provide a clear definition of equality in the face of widespread misconceptions about its meaning as a political idea.
Thus, to say e.
Two non-identical objects are never completely equal; they are different at least in their spatiotemporal location. Here usage might vary. In the case of descriptive use of equality, the common standard is itself descriptive, e.
A prescriptive use of equality is present when a prescriptive standard is applied, i. The standards grounding prescriptive assertions of equality contain at least two components. On the one hand, there is a descriptive component, since the assertions need to contain descriptive criteria, in order to identify those people to which the rule or norm applies.
The question of this identification — who belongs to which category? On the other hand, the comparative standards contain something normative — a moral or legal rule, in the example, the U.
Such a rule constitutes the prescriptive component Westenchap. Sociological and economic analyses of in- equality mainly pose the questions of how inequalities can be determined and measured and what their causes and effects are. In contrast, social and political philosophy is in general concerned mainly with the following questions: Such is the case in this article as well.
Equality essentially consists of a tripartite relation between two or several objects or persons and one or several qualities. Two objects a and b are equal in a certain respect if, in that respect, they fall under the same general terminus. Every comparison presumes a tertium comparationis, a concrete attribute defining the respect in which the equality applies — equality thus referring to a common sharing of this comparison-determining attribute.
There is another source of diversity as well: As Temkinargues, various different standards might be used to measure inequality, with the respect in which people are compared remaining constant. The difference between a general concept and different specific conceptions Rawlsp.
For this reason, it helps to think of the idea of equality or for that matter inequality, understood as an issue of social justice, not as a single principle, but as a complex group of principles forming the basic core of today's egalitarianism.
Depending on which procedural principle one adopts, contrary answers are forthcoming. Both equality and inequality are complex and multifaceted concepts Temkinchap. In any real historical context, it is clear that no single notion of equality can sweep the field.
But they believe that there is also a common underlying strain of important moral concerns implicit in it Williams Above all it serves to remind us of our common humanity, despite various differences cf.
In this sense, egalitarians tend to think of egalitarianism as a single coherent normative doctrine — but one in any case embracing a variety of principles.
Following the introduction of different principles and theories of equality, I will return in the last section of this article to the question how best to define egalitarianism and the value of equality. Principles of Equality and Justice Equality in its prescriptive usage has, of course, a close connection with morality and justice in general and distributive justice in particular.
From antiquity onward, equality has been considered a constitutive feature of justice. On the history of the concept, cf.
AlbernethyBennBrownDannThomson Throughout history, people and emancipatory movements use the language of justice to pillory certain inequalities. But what exactly is the connection between equality and justice, i.
The role and correct account of equality, understood as an issue of social justice, is itself a difficult philosophical issue. To clarify this, philosophers have defended a variety of principles and conceptions of equality, many of which are mentioned in the following discussion.
This section introduces four well known principles of equality, ranging from highly general and uncontroversial to more specific and controversial.Ideas for moral competence research. Moral CompetenceTest (MCT) Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion (KMDD) Improvement of Teaching Through Self-Monitored Evaluation (ITSE).
Downloadable papers (restricted). For access of papers with restricted access please contact me. This passage from Cornel West’s “The Moral Obligations of Living in a Democratic Society” really stuck with me.
My son just turned a year two weeks ago. I had never really thought about getting anything out of all the struggles his father and I go through.
I am not really sure it is something any parent thinks about. Sep 27, · In West’s “The Moral Obligations of Living in a Democratic Society” and Barzun’s “Toward a Fateful Serenity”, West and Barzun both stress the idea of being active in our government rather than being part of “an undifferentiated mob” (West ).
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's.
Environmental Ethics. The field of environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment.
While numerous philosophers have written on this topic throughout history, environmental ethics only developed into a specific philosophical discipline in the s.
This emergence was no doubt due to the increasing awareness in the s of the effects that. Living a good life means realizing those excellences in our lives as best we can. Put another way, we are under a moral obligation [!] to do our best to realize the best that human beings can be.
To neglect that obligation is to waste our lives.