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These three quotes from major British newspapers depict the ongoing willingness of journalists to use information from anonymous sources. Whoever thinks that the information disaster during the build-up of the Iraq War, when the UK kate middleton master thesis format regularly published wrong reports based on intelligence sources, has stopped them from continuing this practice, is wrong.
But of course this is nothing new. This procedure has been going on for the last sixty years, and not even the most outlandish disinformation campaigns in the past have kept the press from going to bed with spies.
In this essay, I want to explore the reasons that lie behind this behaviour.
Why do journalists accept information from intelligence sources so willingly? What are the dangers, but also the benefits of this behaviour? What happens if journalists cross the line and work for the intelligence services?
And what reasons do spooks have to disguise themselves as hacks? And last, but not least: What has James Bond got to do with it?
Origins Phillip Knightley traces the origins of the links between spies and journalists back to the Second World War. Back then, "many journalists thought they could best help defeat Hitler by writing propaganda for one of the information offices or by serving in one of the secret services" The problem was, that some of them kept this ill-fated pseudo-patriotic alliance even after the war had finished.
Soon, the trade of journalism was actively used by the intelligence services, as it provided an excellent cover.
MI6 agents disguised themselves as journalists, and a willing press "even took on MI6 operatives as foreign correspondents", as Knightley cites former SIS officer Anthony Cavendish. But that was not all. The intelligence services also wanted journalists to become more active.
Eric Downton, a Canadian war correspondent, stated, that upon his deployment to Moscow for the Daily Telegraph inhe "was briefed by Six [MI 6] officials on what they wanted me to do" Knightley ibid: Spying Hacks The number of journalists who had links to spies in the past sixty years is substantial.
Richard Keeble, in his book Ethics for Journalists, fills three pages with the names of British journalists from George Orwell to Dominic Lawson, who were linked to the intelligence services And Philip Knightley once said that there is not much of a difference between journalists and spies.
There are even more similarities between the two trades: Both have contributors around the world, both visit conferences, in which their material is sighted and discussed. But again the difference, as Knightley argues, is that while intelligence services are aware of the links between their work and the one of the journalist, the latter is often not.
The many ways, by which intelligence services keep their journalistic contacts in line, are explained by British journalist David Rose. He describes how his contacts with MI5 and MI6 took place in expensive restaurants, and how the agents always insisted on paying the bill.
But it is not only the UK where journalists and spies mix. Knightley describes the Journalisten-Skandal, which shook the German newspaper scene in The German foreign intelligence service Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was being accused of keeping files of journalists which had reported critical about the BND, and which they surveyed with the help of other journalists to expose the moles in their own service.
According to Knightley, the BND paid journalists "to spy and report on their colleagues. Spies were also accused of having placed articles in German magazines op cit: And in the India of the sixties no less a figure than Knightley himself became some sort of spying journalist.
The magazine was an attempt to win the hearts and minds of the Indian population by painting a positive picture of the American way of life. He also admits that this was not the only time he was being used by the intelligence services.
After having written interview requests to the famous defector Kim Philby for five years, he was finally invited to Moscow and given an interview. The KGB wanted to show the West how well they treated defectors.Mcmaster thesis template, The Department of electrical computer engineering have a template which..
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The website of the School of Art History at the University of St.
Andrews lists an honors dissertation by Catherine Middleton, titled “‘Angels from Heaven’: Lewis Carroll’s Photographic Interpretation of Childhood.” Kate completed the paper as a part of her master’s program in art history at the university.
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