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Style guides[ edit ] Early style guides for typesetting used a wider space between sentences than between words—"traditional spacing", as shown in the illustration to the right.
The edition of the Chicago Manual of Style used em spaces between sentences in its text;  by the edition it had changed to single sentence spacing for both manuscript and print. By the s, the United Kingdom's Hart's Rules  had shifted to single sentence spacing.
Other style guides followed suit in the s. These works are important to writers since "virtually all professional editors work closely with one of them in editing a manuscript for publication".
For Authors, Editors and Printersfirst published in by the Commonwealth Government Printing English style guides writing a resume of Australia, stipulates that only one space is used after "sentence-closing punctuation" and that "Programs for word processing and desktop publishing offer more sophisticated, variable spacing, so this practice of double spacing is now avoided because it can create distracting gaps on a page.
This is the case in the United Kingdom. Their publications typically address orthography and grammar as opposed to matters of typography. Style guides are less relevant for such languagesas their academies set prescriptive rules. The Spanish language is similar.
Additionally, the Dudenthe German language dictionary most commonly used in Germany,  indicates that double sentence spacing is an error. Grammar guides typically cover terminal punctuation and the proper construction of sentences—but not the spacing between sentences.
A book that covers all the bases would need to be of considerable breadth and weight and anyone interested in such a resource is advised to consult the Chicago Manual of Style.
Sentence spacing in digital media In the computer era, spacing between sentences is handled in several different ways by various software packages. Some systems accept whatever the user types, while others attempt to alter the spacing, or use the user input as a method of detecting sentences. Computer-based word processors, and typesetting software such as troff and TeXallow users to arrange text in a manner previously only available to professional typesetters.
How Emacs recognizes the end of a sentence is controlled by the settings sentence-end-double-space and sentence-end. The Unix typesetter program troff uses two spaces to mark the end of a sentence.
Early versions of troff,  which only typeset in fixed width fonts, would automatically add a second space between sentences, which were detected based on the combination of terminal punctuation and a line feed.
Microsoft Word does not treat sentences differently by default, but the grammar checking can be set to prefer a specific number of spaces between sentences. TeX typesets an "intersentence space" after a period unless the period follows a capital letter as in initials or it is instructed otherwise.
This is a variable space that is normally wider than an "interword space". On some modern touch-screen platforms, including Android and iOS, typing two spaces in a row is automatically interpreted to mean the end of a sentence, and a period is automatically inserted.
However, only one space is retained. Multiple spaces are eliminated by default in most World Wide Web content, regardless of whether they are associated with sentences or not.
Twitter retains extra spaces in user input on their website. HTML also includes several other space entities which are not collapsed, such as an em space, an en space, and a non-breaking space. Some Unicode space characters are also not collapsed on the web.
Controversy[ edit ] James Felici, author of the Complete Manual of Typography, says that the topic of sentence spacing is "the debate that refuses to die In all my years of writing about type, it's still the question I hear most often, and a search of the web will find threads galore on the subject.
Many people are opposed to single sentence spacing for various reasons. Some state that the habit of double spacing is too deeply ingrained to change. A key example noted is the screenwriting industry's monospaced standard for screenplay manuscripts, Courierpoint font,  although some works on screenwriting indicate that Courier is merely preferred—proportional fonts may be used.
When the typewriter was first introduced, typists were most commonly taught to use three spaces between sentences. Some sources now state it is acceptable for monospaced fonts to be single spaced today,  although other references continue to specify double spacing for monospaced fonts.
Effects on readability and legibility[ edit ] Main article: Sentence spacing studies Claims abound regarding the legibility and readability of the single and double sentence spacing methods—by proponents on both sides. Supporters of single spacing assert that familiarity with the current standard in books, magazines, and the Web enhances readability, that double spacing looks strange in text using proportional fonts, and that the " rivers " and "holes" caused by double spacing impair readability.
However, typographic opinions are typically anecdotal with no basis in evidence.Use a Sample of Waiver Letter Requests to Guide Your Own Letter Writing. Waiver letters are requests that a requirement or obligation that would normally be in effect, be dispensed with.
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