This section provides an overview of key trends shaping the future of the industry: These factors, combined with the growth of disposable income, the rise of the middle class in many emerging markets and changing attitudes of people towards travel, have enabled the industry to flourish. While travel is still not accessible to everyone, more people than ever before are travelling today—with 1. In previous decades, North America and Europe have dominated the travel markets, but this may not be the case for much longer.
A change of culture was needed to increase consumption In his book, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism Allyn and Bacon,Richard Robins describes that for the rise of consumerism in the United States to occur, buying habits had to be transformed and luxuries had to be made into necessities.
He describes numerous ways in which this was accomplished pp. A major transformation in the meaning of goods and how they were presented and displayed.
The evolution of the department store into a place to display goods as objects in themselves. Orchestras, piano players, flower Effect of media on creating national, and so on would be used to present goods in a way that inspired people to buy them.
The department store became a cultural primer telling people how they should dress, furnish their homes, and spend their leisure time. The goal of the advertisers was to aggressively shape consumer desires and create value in commodities by imbuing them with the power to transform the consumer into a more desirable person.
The idea of fashion would help in the stirring up of anxieties and restlessness over the possession of things that were not new or up-to-date.
Fashion pressured people to buy not out of need but for style — from a desire to conform to what others defined as fashionable. Customers were to be treated like guests. The adage of the customer is always right rings true here. A transformation of the major institutions of American society, each redefining its function to include the promotion of consumption.
Robbins notes that, Educational and cultural institutions, governmental agencies, financial institutions, and even the family itself changed their meaning and function to promote the consumption of commodities. Business schools popped up in many places.
Robbins also describes the setting up of the U. Commerce Department inunder Herbert Hoover, as a clear example of the increasing role of the federal government in the promotion of consumption. As he points out: Hoover clearly intended the Department of Commerce to serve as the hand-maiden of American business, and its main goal was to help encourage the consumption of commodities.
It was unique at that time; Britain and other countries did not initiate government-sponsored consumer research until the s. It detailed where the consumers were and what quantities of goods they would consume; it pointed out areas where goods were overdeveloped and which goods were best carried by which stores.
The Commerce Department endorsed retail and cooperative advertising and advised merchants on service devices, fashion, style, and display methods of all kinds. The agency advised retail establishments on the best ways to deliver goods to consumers, redevelop streets, build parking lots and underground transportation systems to attract consumers, use colored lights, and display merchandise in tempting ways.
The goal was to break down all barriers between consumers and commodities Leach This increases the amount of resources that are used, as well as increasing sales for related industries. Robbins is worth quoting again here: Hoover also emphasized individual home ownership.
The Commerce Department flooded the country with public relations materials on homebuying ideas, producing a leaflet entitled Own Your Own Homealong with a film, Home sweet home.
They advocated single-dwelling homes over multiunit dwellings and suburban over urban housing. The leaflet recommended a separate bedroom for each child, saying it was undesirable for two children to occupy the same bed — whatever their age.
Regardless of the reasons for these recommendations, the materials produced by the Commerce Department all promoted maximum consumption.Mike has been a photographer, artist, educator, and technophile for most of his life.
Early in his career, he created technical illustrations and photographs for electronic equipment manufacturers, and taught classes in computer aided drafting and 3D modeling software.
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science investigates cause-and-effect relationships by seeking the mechanisms that underlie them. The next concept—scale, proportion, and quantity—concerns the sizes of things and the mathematical relationships among disparate elements.
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