Book — xviii, p. Summary Preface Acknowledgements 1.
We value your privacy Abstract Summary This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions. Using the conceptual framework for police research presented by Bernard and Engel, it reviews a number of theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops.
The authors argue that to explain police behavior better, theoretical models must guide future data collection efforts. This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions.
Other experts have challenged the accuracy of these profiles, and still others have argued that, even if accurate, all race-based decision making is inappropriate Harris,a; Kennedy, In this article, we argue that a similar unsupported assumption has strongly influenced academic research on racial profiling.
We review 13 studies that collected data on police-citizen contacts during traffic and field interrogation stops, each of which found racial disparities in the aggregate rates of such stops. The problem with interpreting these findings is that the mere presence of disparity in the aggregate rate of stops does not, in itself, demonstrate racial prejudice, any more than racial disparity in prison populations demonstrates racial prejudice by sentencing judges.
However, since there is no agreement about what constitutes a reliable and valid base rate, all these conclusions are premature. Ultimately, the lack of a reliable and valid base rate is related to the fact that these studies had no coherent theoretical framework to guide the data collection efforts or to interpret their results.
Specifically, these studies failed to measure any explanatory factors beyond the simple aggregate rate of stops. This diverges from almost all other research on policing conducted in the past 30 years, which has focused on explaining police behavior.
In contrast, the data collection efforts to examine racial profiling have neglected the need to explain how and why officers make decisions.
We begin this article with a brief discussion of racial prejudice and racial profiling, to distinguish between the two and frame the problem. Second, we review 13 recent studies on racial profiling and critique both their methods and their conclusions.
Third, we present a conceptual framework for police research based on a recent approach to criminal justice theory presented by Bernard and Engel Fourth, within the context of this conceptual framework, we review a number of general theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops, in each case identifying the specific intervening variables involved.
Finally, we argue that collecting data on these variables should be the focus of future research on racial profiling, since only in that way can police decision making in traffic and field interrogation stops be explained.
Since that time, criminal justice researchers have focused on determining the relative influence of legal and extralegal factors on decision making. The bulk of this research was driven by early findings from qualitative ethnographic field studies of the police Bittner, ; Rubinstein, ; Skolnick, ; Van Maanen,along with sociological and conflict theories describing the importance of social, economic, and political factors in decision making in the criminal justice system Black, ; Quinney, The recent emphasis on research surrounding the use of racial profiling can be viewed as an extension of this larger focus that has been historically found in policing research.
Prior to the s, racial prejudice was still the basis for many state and local laws, and many police administrators and police officers argued publicly that racial prejudice was appropriate and reasonable.
In contrast to racial prejudice, racial profiling is relatively recent.Measuring the Performance of the Police: The Perspective of the Measuring the Performance of the Police: The Perspective of the Public. PDF ( Kb) Table of contents. Abstract; sustainable levels of policing has included a discussion of targeting and refining the application of policing resources to ensure police service delivery is.
DISCUSSION QUESTION Q&A: POLICING PERSPECTIVE: 2 Discussion Question Q&A: Policing Perspective: Theory and Application This is the end of the preview. Sign up . When the organisation in question is the public face of the executive branch, responsible for order maintenance, law enforcement, and service (Wilson Wilson, J.Q., Varieties of police behavior: the management of law and order in eight communities.
Objectives Klinger’s (Criminology 35(2): –, ) ecological theory of policing addresses the intersection of environment and police organizational structure on police patrol practices. The theoretical study of societal reaction to deviance has been carried out under different names, such as, labelling theory, interactionist perspective, and the social constructionist perspective.
In the sociology of deviance, the labelling theory of deviant behaviour is often used interchangeably with the societal reaction theory of deviancy.
Policing: A Journal of Policy and aim to achieve two overarching goals. On the one hand, by recording police–public interactions from the officer’s perspective, they are believed to prevent escalations or new crimes from occurring. limited. In BWC terms, these are police departments that make the use of the devices mandatory.