Article and charts by Richard D. Lewis Before trying to build a multi-national team you need to take note of different leadership styles — attitudes to authority can have a profound effect on motivation. Experience overseas readily reveals how leadership styles in business vary from country to country — a factor which builders of cross-border teams often ignore to their cost. In some cultures, for example, leaders will demonstrate technical competence, place facts before sentiment, and focus their own attention and that of their staff on immediate achievements and results.
Leadership Content No topic, probably, has been quite as exhaustively examined, studied, dissected, and discussed as leadership. But much of the focus has been on how American businesses define leadership.
What works in U. Housedirector of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program at the Wharton School, has spent the past ten years studying how different cultures throughout the world define leadership. He and his colleagues have found that definitions and perceptions of leadership vary considerably from culture to culture.
In the global business world, organizations and executives face a growing need to understand the subtleties and nuances of leadership as it is exercised in different cultures. Over the past six years GLOBE has evolved into a multi-phase, multi-method research project in which some investigators from over 60 cultures representing all major regions of the world collaborate to examine the interrelationships among societal culture, organizational culture and practices and organizational leadership.
GLOBE has focused on universals and culture-based differences in perceived effectiveness of leadership attributes by asking middle managers whether certain leader characteristics and behaviors would help or hinder a person in becoming an outstanding leader.
Phase II found that there are universally endorsed Cross cultural management midterm study guide attributes. In addition, the study also found that there are attributes that are universally seen as impediments to outstanding leadership.
The most important finding, however, is that there are culturally-contingent attributes that can help or hinder leadership. What is seen as a strength in one culture may be a considerable impediment in another culture. These findings appear in a paper titled: Business is global, but each business organization has a culture shaped by the business it is in and the people who run the business.
Executives are themselves products of the unique cultures in which they have learned and conducted business. To see how cultures might come into play, we can easily imagine a situation in which a British executive who was trained at an American business school is asked to run the Argentine manufacturing facility of a Japanese firm.
What leadership attributes should this executive work to develop: This executive needs to understand the culture within which he works and how his employees perceive leadership.
An executive needs to develop bespoke leadership attributes, tailored to the unique culture within which he or she works. A general description of a leader might be someone who is charismatic and seeks to develop a transformational style of leadership.
In some cultures, one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership. Managerial practices and motivational techniques that are legitimate and acceptable in on culture may not be in another.
There is concern in some cultures that people tend to lose their balance and perspective as a result of an excessive focus on achievement created by charismatic leaders.
Certainly the most notorious example of a charismatic leader is Hitler. Leaders are expected to have vision, but how this is displayed differs from culture to culture. In China, the influence of Confucian values make people wary of leaders who talk without engaging in specific action.
Indian managers, on the other hand, care less about visionaries, preferring bold assertive styles of leadership. Leaders are often thought to be risk- takers, but GLOBE found that risk taking is not universally valued as contributing to outstanding leadership.
Communication skills are also important to the leader, but again, how these skills are perceived differs among and within cultures. What constitutes a good communicator is likely to vary greatly across cultures.Earn your math teacher certification with WGU’s accredited online Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics (Grades ) with teaching licensure.
Today, the journal of Cross-Cultural Research is the premiere locale for published works using cross-cultural analysis. Early approaches to cross-cultural analysis focused on the concept of cultural evolution, the notion that all societies progress through an identical series of distinct evolutionary stages.
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Cross-cultural communication, also known as intercultural and trans-cultural communication, indicates the exchange of ideas, emotions, and information by means of language, words, and body language between people from different cultural backgrounds.
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